Help:Math Help part 6

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Related Math Help pages

  • Math Help part 1 - contains information on Syntax, Rendering and Pros and Cons of TeX and HTML for math functions
  • Math Help part 2 - contains information on Functions, Symbols and Special characters
  • Math Help part 3 - contains information on Subscripts, Superscripts and Integrals
  • Math Help part 7 - contains information about Spacing, Aligning with normal text flow,Forced PNG rendering, Color and examples.

This wiki uses a subset of TeX markup, including some extensions from LaTeX and AMS-LaTeX, for mathematical formulae. It generates either PNG images or simple HTML markup, depending on user preferences and the complexity of the expression. In the future, as more browsers are smarter, it will be able to generate enhanced HTML or even MathML in many cases.

More precisely, MediaWiki filters the markup through Texvc, which in turn passes the commands to TeX for the actual rendering. Thus, only a limited part of the full TeX language is supported; see below for details.


Parenthesizing big expressions, brackets, bars

Feature Syntax How it looks rendered
Bad ( \frac{1}{2} ) <math>( \frac{1}{2} )</math>
Good \left ( \frac{1}{2} \right ) <math>\left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )</math>

You can use various delimiters with \left and \right:

Feature Syntax How it looks rendered
Parentheses \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right ) <math>\left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )</math>
Brackets \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack <math>\left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack</math>
Braces \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace <math>\left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace</math>
Angle brackets \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle <math>\left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle</math>
Bars and double bars \left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \| <math>\left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|</math>
Floor and ceiling functions: \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil <math>\left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil</math>
Slashes and backslashes \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash <math>\left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash</math>
Up, down and up-down arrows \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow <math>\left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow</math>

Delimiters can be mixed,
as long as \left and \right match

\left [ 0,1 \right )
\left \langle \psi \right |

<math>\left [ 0,1 \right )</math>
<math>\left \langle \psi \right |</math>

Use \left. and \right. if you don't
want a delimiter to appear:
\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X <math>\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X</math>
Size of the delimiters \big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( ... \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]

<math>\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( ... \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]</math>

\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ ... \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle

<math>\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ ... \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle</math>

\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| ... \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big| <math>\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| ... \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big|</math>
\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor ... \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rceil

<math>\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor ... \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rceil</math>

\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow ... \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow

<math>\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow ... \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow</math>

\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow ... \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow \Big\Updownarrow \big\Updownarrow

<math>\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow ... \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow \Big\Updownarrow \big\Updownarrow</math>

\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / ... \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash

<math>\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / ... \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash</math>