Antennas

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Antennas are electrical circuits designed to facilitate the transmission and/or reception of electromagnetic radiation.

Antennas are specifically designed to transmit/receive as much electromagnetic radiation as possible, whereas most circuits are designed to emit/detect as little as possible. However, even a dummy load will emit a small amount of electromagnetic energy when radio-frequency oscillations are applied to it.

Antenna Size

Optimized antennas will have dimensions of the same order as the wavelength of operation. A balanced antenna will typically be about a half-wavelength long, and an unbalanced antenna such as a vertical will typically be about a quarter-wavelength long. It is possible to shorten antennas drastically at the cost of efficiency. See antenna loading for more discussion.

Theory of Antennas

In terms of their construction, antennas are RLC circuits in which resistance, inductance and capacitance are distributed along a conductor, rather than being concentrated in a particular component such as an inductance in an inductor.

Antenna Types

Simple Antennas:

Dipole

Loop

Omnidirectional

Random Wire

Vertical

Wire

Complex Antennas:

Beam

DDRR

Dish or Parabola

Log Periodic (LPDA) [1]

Quad

Yagi [2]

Specialized Antennas:

DF - Direction Finding

Mobile

Panel

Portable

Baluns

Understanding Antennas

UNDERSTANDING ANTENNAS FOR THE NON-TECHNICAL HAM